Free Cash Flow to the Firm - FCFF | Explained

Free Cash Flow to the Firm - FCFF | Explained

What is FCFF?

Free Cash Flow to the Firm or FCFF is the cash flow i.e. available to all the stakeholders of the business i.e Equity shareholders, Debt holders, Preference shareholder, Convertible bondholders, Stock option holder, etc.  It is used to determine the Enterprise Value (EV) of the firm.

FCFF is the actual cash flow left after paying off all the business expenses and accounting for depreciation expenses, taxes, working capital changes and investments.

A positive free cash flow means a company has a sound financial health as compared to its peers. Such companies are considered cash rich companies. While a negative FCFF indicates, the company is not able to generate enough revenue to cover up its expenses and investment activities



There are three ways to calculate FCFF depending upon the type of entity, if it’s a listed entity, than it is easy to get the data from its financial statements and thus formula no. 1 is the first choice, however if it’s a private company, we don’t have enough information about its financial and thus we could use the remaining formula to calculate the FCFF of the company


1) FCFF = NOPAT + D&A – CapEx – Δ Net WC

NOPAT : Net operating profit after taxes = EBIT (1- tax)

D&A : Depreciation and amortization expense (Since this are non cash expenses, we add them back) 

CapEx : Capital Expenditure (We can find this in the Cash flow statement under the head “ Cash flow from investing)

Δ Net WC : Changes in Net working capital = Current year Working capital – Previous Year Working capital


2) FCFF = CFO + Interest (1 – Tax) – CapEx

CFO : Cash flow from operation


3) FCFF = NI + Interest (1-Tax) + D&A – CapEx - Δ Net WC

NI : Net Income


Example: Infosys Limited

Free Cash Flow to the Firm - FCFF | Explained

If you found it useful than do share with your friends and also let us know in the comment section if you have any query.

Do follow us on telegram for regular updates: Telegram Link


Check out our Equity Research / Financial Modeling Series: Click Here

Thanks for reading

The Finance Magic

Next Post »


Click here for comments
jhon berry
September 12, 2021 at 3:18 AM ×

Positive cash flow does not happen by accident; it happens because a well-defined financial management technique called "cash management" is functioning.Nano cryptocurrency is the best to invest

jhon berry
September 12, 2021 at 3:24 AM ×

A good cash management system helps to efficiently and effectively manage the activities that produce cash.Best crypto on Reddit


Please do not spam ConversionConversion EmoticonEmoticon